中英文:奋进中的中国国防和军队

2020-07-28 16:55:29 来源:中国驻瑞典使馆武官处

(本报斯德哥尔摩讯)中国驻瑞典大使馆武官处徐俊武官应北欧时报邀请,通过网络形式介绍中国人民解放军各军种部队的装备现状,并为本报独家撰写中英文特稿《奋进中的中国国防和军队》,供北欧华人华侨和国际友人更好了解新时代的中国军队(详情请看本期6、7、15、16版)。


奋进中的中国国防和军队


文:中国驻瑞典国防武官  徐俊


一、国际安全形势


当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,世界多极化、经济全球化、社会信息化、文化多样化深入发展,但国际安全面临的不稳定性不确定性更加突出,世界并不太平。


(一)国际战略格局深刻演变。国际力量加快分化组合,国际战略竞争呈上升之势。全球和地区性安全问题持续增多。国际军控和裁军遭遇挫折,军备竞赛趋势显现。极端主义、恐怖主义不断蔓延,非传统安全威胁日益凸显。世界经济和战略重心继续向亚太地区转移,亚太地区成为大国博弈的焦点,地区安全热点问题时起时伏。


(二)国家安全面临风险挑战。反分裂斗争形势更加严峻,“台独”分裂势力及其活动始终是台海和平稳定的最大现实威胁。境外“藏独”“东突”等分裂势力活动频繁。国土安全依然面临威胁,陆地边界争议尚未彻底解决,岛屿领土问题和海洋划界争端依然存在,个别域外国家舰机对中国频繁实施抵近侦察,多次非法闯入中国领海及有关岛礁邻近海空域。中国海外利益面临现实威胁,驻外机构、海外企业及人员多次遭到袭击。自然灾害、重大疫情等非传统安全问题的危害上升。


(三)国际军事竞争日趋激烈。世界各主要国家纷纷发展新型作战力量,抢占军事竞争战略制高点。人工智能、量子信息、大数据、云计算、物联网等前沿科技加速应用于军事领域。武器装备远程精确化、智能化、隐身化、无人化趋势更加明显,战争形态加速向信息化战争演变,智能化战争初现端倪。


二、新时代中国防御性国防政策


坚决捍卫国家主权、安全、发展利益,坚持永不称霸、永不扩张、永不谋求势力范围。中华民族历来爱好和平。近代以来,中国人民饱受侵略和战乱之苦,深感和平之珍贵。历史已经并将继续证明,中国决不走追逐霸权、“国强必霸”的老路。无论将来发展到哪一步,中国都不会威胁谁,都不会谋求建立势力范围。


贯彻落实新时代军事战略方针。新时代军事战略方针,坚持防御、自卫、后发制人原则,实行积极防御,坚持“人不犯我、我不犯人,人若犯我、我必犯人”,强调遏制战争与打赢战争相统一,强调战略上防御与战役战斗上进攻相统一。


坚持走中国特色强军之路。建设同国际地位相称、同国家安全和发展利益相适应的巩固国防和强大军队。新时代中国国防和军队建设,深入贯彻习近平强军思想,深入贯彻习近平军事战略思想,坚持政治建军、改革强军、科技兴军、依法治军,聚焦能打仗、打胜仗,推动机械化信息化融合发展,加快军事智能化发展,构建中国特色现代军事力量体系,不断提高履行新时代使命任务的能力。新时代中国国防和军队建设的战略目标是,全面推进军事理论现代化、军队组织形态现代化、军事人员现代化、武器装备现代化,力争到2035年基本实现国防和军队现代化,到本世纪中叶把人民军队全面建成世界一流军队。


服务构建人类命运共同体。中国军队坚持履行国际责任和义务,始终高举合作共赢的旗帜,在力所能及的范围内向国际社会提供更多公共安全产品,积极参加国际维和、海上护航、人道主义救援等行动,加强国际军控和防扩散合作,建设性参与热点问题的政治解决,共同维护国际通道安全,积极为构建人类命运共同体贡献力量。


三、履行新时代军队使命任务


进入新时代,中国军队依据国家安全和发展战略要求,坚决履行党和人民赋予的使命任务,为巩固中国共产党领导和社会主义制度提供战略支撑,为捍卫国家主权、统一、领土完整提供战略支撑,为维护国家海外利益提供战略支撑,为促进世界和平与发展提供战略支撑。


日常使命任务主要有:维护国家领土主权和海洋权益,保持常备不懈的战备状态,开展实战化军事训练,维护重大安全领域利益,遂行反恐维稳,维护海外利益,参加抢险救灾。


四、改革中的中国国防和军队


按照“军委管总、战区主战、军种主建”原则,强化军委集中统一领导和战略指挥、战略管理功能。调整组建新的军委机关部门,作为军委集中领导的参谋机关、执行机关、服务机关。完善军兵种领导管理体制,成立陆军领导机构、战略支援部队和联勤保障部队,第二炮兵更名为火箭军。建立健全联合作战指挥体制,成立东部、南部、西部、北部、中部5个战区,构建起“中央军委-战区-部队”的作战指挥体系。优化规模结构和力量编成,推动军队由数量规模型向质量效能型、人力密集型向科技密集型转变。


调整军队规模比例,重塑力量结构布局。裁减军队员额30万,现役总员额减至200万。大幅压减陆军现役员额,保持空军现役员额稳定,适度增加海军、火箭军现役员额。调整作战部队编成,重构新型作战力量。陆军原18个集团军整合重组为13个集团军。在全军主要作战部队实行“军-旅-营”体制。增加特种作战、立体攻防、两栖作战、远海防卫、战略投送等新型作战力量。


五、合理适度的国防开支


中国坚持发展和安全兼顾、富国和强军统一,坚持国防建设与经济建设协调发展,依据国家经济发展水平和国防需求,合理确定国防费规模结构。


2020年中国国防预算为12680亿元人民币(约1782亿美元),同比增幅6.6%。按用途划分,主要由人员生活费、训练维持费和装备费构成。国防费的保障范围包括现役部队、预备役部队、民兵等。近年来增长的国防费主要用于:(一)提高和改善官兵生活福利待遇。(二)加大武器装备建设投入,淘汰更新部分落后和老旧装备。(三)保障军队重大改革。(四)保障实战化训练。(五)保障国际维和、护航、人道主义救援、抢险救灾等行动。


中国国防费是公开透明的,开支水平是合理适度的,与世界主要国家相比,国防费占国内生产总值和财政支出的比重、人均国防费是偏低的。


六、积极服务构建人类命运共同体


中国军队忠实践行人类命运共同体理念,积极履行大国军队国际责任,全面推进新时代国际军事合作,努力为建设持久和平、普遍安全的美好世界作贡献。中国坚定维护联合国宪章宗旨和原则,坚定维护多边主义。一贯积极参与国际军控、裁军和防扩散努力,反对军备竞赛,维护全球战略平衡和稳定,签署或加入了《不扩散核武器条约》等数十个多边军控、裁军和防扩散条约。中国积极发展对外建设性军事关系,迄今已同150多个国家开展军事交往,同41个国家和国际组织建立防务磋商对话机制54项。


中国积极支持联合国维和行动,是联合国维和行动的主要出资国之一,是安理会常任理事国中第一大出兵国。已累计参加24项联合国维和行动,派出维和军事人员3.9万余人次,13名中国军人牺牲在维和一线。建设8000人规模维和待命部队,为数十个国家培训了1500余名维和人员。中国海军常态部署3至4艘舰艇执行护航任务,共派出35批100余艘次舰艇为约7000艘中外船舶提供安全保护。积极参加国际灾难救援和人道主义援助,先后组织或参加菲律宾台风救援、抗击西非埃博拉疫情、尼泊尔抗震救灾、老挝水灾溃坝救援、新冠病毒国际援助等多项行动。


和平是各国人民的共同愿望,发展是人类社会的永恒主题。中国坚信,称霸扩张终将失败,安全繁荣应该共享。中国将坚持走和平发展道路,同各国人民一道维护世界和平、促进共同发展。


在习近平强军思想指引下,中国军队正沿着中国特色强军之路,向着全面建成世界一流军队的宏伟目标奋勇前进。中国军队有决心有信心有能力战胜一切威胁挑战,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供坚强战略支撑,为服务构建人类命运共同体作出新的更大贡献。


China’s National Defence and Armed Forces are Striding Forward



By: Xu Jun,  Chinese Defence Attache in Sweden



I. International Secutiry Situation


The world today is undergoing profound changes unseen in a century. The economic globalization, the information society, and cultural diversification keep developing in an increasingly multi-polar world. Nonetheless, there are prominent destabilizing factors and uncertainties in international security. The world is not yet a tranquil place.


1. The International Strategic Landscape is Going Through Profound Changes

the realignment of international powere accelerates,  international strategic competition is on the rise, global and regional security issues are on the increase. International arms control and disarmament efforts have suffered setbacks, with growing signs of arms races. Extremism and terrorism keep spreading. Non-traditional security threats are becoming more pronounced. As the world economic and strategic center continues to shift towards the Asia-Pacific, the region has become a focus of major country competition, security hotspots rise from time to time in the region.


2. China is Facing Security Risks and Challenges

The fight against separatists is becoming more acute.  The “Taiwan independence” separatist forces and their actions remain the gravest immediate threat to peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait. External separatist forces for “Tibet independence” and the creation of “East Turkistan” launch frequent actions. China’s homeland security still faces threats. Land territorial disputes are yet to be completely resolved. Disputes still exist over the territorial sovereignty of some islands and reefs, as well as maritime demarcation. Countries from outside the region conduct frequent close-in reconnaissance on China by air and sea, and illegally enter China’s territorial waters and the waters and airspace near China’s islands and reefs。


3.Global Military Competition is Intensifying

Major countries around the world are developing new types of combat forces to seize the strategic commanding heights in military competition. Artificial intelligence (AI), quantum information, big data, cloud computing and the Internet of Things are gathering pace in the military field. There is a prevailing trend to develop long-range precision, intelligent, stealthy or unmanned weaponry and equipment. War is evolving in form towards informationized warfare, and intelligent warfare is on the horizon.


II. China’s Defensive National Defense Policy in the New Era


China resolutely safeguard it’s sovereignty, security and development interests, never seek hegemony, expansion or spheres of influence.The Chinese nation has always loved peace. Since the beginning of modern times, the Chinese people have suffered from aggressions and wars, and have learned the value of peace. History proves and will continue to prove that China will never follow the beaten track of big powers in seeking hegemony. No matter how it might develop, China will never threaten any other country or seek any sphere of influence.


China is implementing the military strategic guideline for a new era. The military strategic guideline for a new era adheres to the principles of defense, self-defense and post-strike response, and adopts active defense. It keeps to the stance that “we will not attack unless we are attacked, but we will surely counterattack if attacked”, places emphasis on both containing and winning wars, and underscores the unity of strategic defense and offense at operational and tactical levels.


China is building a fortified national defense and a strong military commensurate with the country’s international standing and its security and development interests. To strengthen China’s national defense and military in the new era, it is imperative to comprehensively implement Xi Jinping’s thinking on strengthening the military, thoroughly deliver on Xi Jinping’s thinking on military strategy, continue to enhance the political loyalty of the armed forces, strengthen them through reform and technology, run them in accordance with the law, and focus on the capabilities to fight and win. Efforts will be made to advance the integrated development of mechanization and informationization, speed up the development of intelligent military, create a modernized military force structure with Chinese characteristics, and constantly enhance the capabilities to fulfill the missions and tasks in the new era. The strategic goals for the development of China’s national defense and military in the new era are to comprehensively advance the modernization of military theory, organizational structure, military personnel, and weaponry and equipment in step with the modernization of the country and basically complete the modernization of national defense and the military by 2035; and to fully transform the people’s armed forces into world-class forces by the mid-21st century.


China is in the service of building of a community with a shared future for mankind.Committed to the principle of win-win cooperation, China’s armed forces will fulfill their international responsibilities and obligations, and provide more public security goods to the international community to the best of their capacity. They actively participate in the UN peacekeeping operations (UNPKOs), vessel protection operations, and international efforts in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR), strengthen international cooperation in arms control and non-proliferation, play a constructive role in the political settlement of hotspot issues, jointly maintain the security of international passages, thus making a positive contribution to building a community with a shared future for mankind.


III. Fulfilling the Missions and Tasks of China’s Armed Forces in the New Era


In the new era, to meet the strategic demands of national security and development, China’s armed forces firmly implement the missions and tasks entrusted by the CPC and the people. They endeavor to provide strategic support for consolidating the leadership of the CPC and the socialist system, safeguarding national sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity, protecting China’s overseas interests, and promoting world peace and development.


The China’s Armed Forces firmly implement the missions of safeguarding national territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests; maintaining combat readiness; carrying out military training in real combat conditions; safeguarding interests in major security fields; countering terrorism and maintaining stability; protecting china’s overseas interests; participating in disaster rescue and relief.


IV. Reform in China’s National Defense and Armed Forces


Adhering to the general principle of “the Central Military Commission(CMC) exercising overall leadership, the Theater Commands(TCs) responsible for military operations and the services focusing on developing capabilities”, the People’s Liberation Army(PLA) endeavors to enhance the CMC’s centralized and unified leadership and its functions of strategic command and strategic management. New functional organs are reorganized and established under the centralized CMC leadership to advise, execute and serve. The leadership and management system for services and arms are improved. The PLA has Established the PLA Army leading organs, PLA Strategic Support Force(PLASSF) and PLA Joint Logistic Support Force(PLAJLSF), renamed the Second Artillery Force the Rocket Force(PLARF). The joint operations command system is established and improved . Five Theater Command are established: Eastern Theater Command , Southern Theater Command, Western Theater Command, Northern Theater Command, and Central Theater Command. A CMC-TCs-Troops operations command system has been established. The PLA is optimizing size, structure and force composition, striving to transform from a quantity-and-scale model to that of quality and efficiency, as well as from being personnel intensive to that of sience and technology intensive.


Adjusting scale and proportion, and restructuring force composition. 300,000 personnel have been cut to keep the total active force at 2 million. The PLA has significantly downsized the active force of the Army, maintained that of the Air Force at a steady number, moderately increased that of the Navy and Rocket Force. Reorganizing the troops and rebuilding new-type combat forces. The previous 18 group armies have been reorganized into 13 new ones. All major combat units of the PLA follow a group army-brigade-battalion system.  New types of combat forces have been enhanced to conduct special operations, all-dimensional offense and defense, amphibious operations, far seas protection and strategic projection.


V. Reasonable and Appropriate Defense Expenditure


China attends to both development and security. It is making an integrated effort to build a prosperous country and a strong military, and striving for the coordinated development of national defense and the economy. China takes into consideration the development of the economy and the demands of national defense, decides on the appropriate scale and composition of defense expenditure.


China’s defense budget of 2020 is RMB1268 billion (USD178.2 billion), increased by 6.6% than that of 2019. In terms of usage, China’s defense expenditure is assigned to three sectors – personnel, training and sustainment, and equipment. In terms of scope, defense expenditure covers all active forces, reserve forces and militia. In recent years, the increase in defense expenditure has been primarily spent for the following purposes: 1. Improving the wellbeing of service personnel. 2. Increasing input in weaponry and equipment development, phasing out the outdated, upgrading the old, and developing and procuring the new. 3. Supporting major reforms in PLA. 4. Supporting training in real combat conditions. 5. Supporting UN peace keeping operations(UNPKOs), vessel protection operations, humanitarian assistance operations and disaster relief efforts.


China’s defense expenditure is open and transparent, and its spending is reasonable and appropriate. Compared to other major countries, the ratios of China’s defense expenditure to GDP and to government expenditure, as well as the per capita defense expenditure of the country, remain at a relatively low level.


VI. Actively Contributing to Building a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind


China’s armed forces have responded faithfully to the call for a community with a shared future for mankind. They are actively fulfilling the international obligations of the armed forces of a major country, comprehensively promoting international military cooperation for the new era, and striving for a better world of lasting peace and common security. China resolutely upholds the purposes and principles of the UN charter, firmly maintains multilateralism. China actively participates in international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. China objects to arms race and strives to protect global strategic balance and stability. To this end, China has signed or acceded to dozens of relevant multilateral treaties including the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. China actively develops constructive relationships with foreign militaries, has engaged in military exchanges with more than 150 countries, has put in place 54 defense consultation and dialogue mechanisms with 41 countries and international organizations.


China actively supports the UNPKOs. It is a major contributor to the UN peacekeeping budget and the largest troop contributing country among the permanent members of the UN security council. China has participated in 24 UN peacekeeping missions and has contributed more than 39,000 peacekeepers. 13 Chinese military personnel have sacrificed their lives in the UNPKOs. China has built a peacekeeping standby force of 8,000 troops, has trained over 1,500 individuals from dozens of countries. Over 100 vessels have been regularly deployed in 35 convoys, each consisting of three to four ships, in vessel protection operations. They have provided security protection for about 7000 Chinese and foreign ships. China’s armed forces take an active part in the international efforts for Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief. China’s armed forces have participated in the relief operations for the typhoon in the Philippines, the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the earthquake in Nepal, the flood caused by a dam collapse in Laos and international assistance to fight against COVID-19, etc.


Peace is an aspiration for all peoples, and development is an eternal theme of humanity. China firmly believes that hegemony and expansion are doomed to failure, and security and prosperity shall be shared. China will remain committed to peaceful development and work with people of all countries to safeguard world peace and promote common development.


Guided by Xi Jinping’s thinking on strengthening the military,  the PLA is striding forward along its own path to build a stronger military and endeavor to achieve the great goal of developing world-class forces in an all-round way. China’s armed forces have the determination, confidence and capability to prevail over all threats and challenges. They stand ready to provide strong strategic support for the realization of the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, and to make new and greater contributions to the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.

完整电子报


北欧时报电子报链接:http://www.chinanews.se/Public/Uploadfiles/20200730/34737d279ec2e1100522c3830ed98fea.pdf