双语:桂从友大使接受瑞典《今日工业报》记者奥兰德专访

2019-07-03 20:37:13 来源:北欧时报

7月3日,桂从友大使在观摩瑞典哥特兰政治周期间接受瑞典《今日工业报》编辑奥兰德专访。全文如下。




问:从日前的二十国集团领导人大阪峰会开始,中美贸易战开始停战,美方表示不再对中国出口产品加征新的关税。但目前看情况并没有太大变化。外界如何相信重启的中美经贸磋商能取得积极进展?


答:首先,中方坚决反对打贸易战。美国单方面对包括中国在内的世界主要经济体发起贸易战,损人害己。我们的态度一直是谈判的大门始终敞开,愿同美方继续磋商。但如果美方坚持要打,我们奉陪到底。二十国集团领导人大阪峰会召开前夕,特朗普总统提出希在峰会期间同习近平主席会晤。两国元首达成重要共识,即在平等和相互尊重基础上重启经贸磋商,美方不再对中国出口产品加征新的关税。


问:中国官方表示,贸易战是特朗普总统单方面发起的。但特朗普称,中国对美出口是美国对华出口的5倍,两国贸易条件长期不平等。这是事实吗?特朗普说的对吗?


答:中美经贸合作的本质是互利双赢,是市场行为。中美经贸合作是互补的。美国进口商从中国买什么、中国出口商向美国卖什么,这完全是企业主体的自主市场行为。中国政府不能违背市场原则,指示中国商家拒绝进口美国出口商的产品,或是指示中国出口商不向美国出口商品。如果特朗普总统认为美国向中国出口少了,导致中国贸易顺差,那就请为美国企业更多向中国出口创造条件。


问:中美贸易战有着更大的背景。早在贸易战爆发前,特朗普政府就将中国列为战略竞争对手,这是美对华政策的重大转变,美国会的对华态度更加鹰派,美国商界也逐渐认同这一看法。美国甚至威胁要对全部中国输美商品加征25%的关税。中国官方媒体《中国日报》曾发文称,美国发动贸易战只是表象,其真正目的是想全方位遏制中国发展。大使先生对此怎么看?


答:我们看待国际关系,一条基本原则是冷战已经结束,国与国关系不应再是零和游戏。中国奉行对外开放政策,主张合作共赢。中方愿同世界各国发展友好合作关系,通过合作更好地实现共同发展。中国有近14亿人口,占全球总人口的五分之一。中国发展得好,世界才能发展得好。我们坚定不移奉行和平发展理念,不把任何国家定为竞争对手。美国有人把中国定为战略竞争对手,是冷战思维的表现。试图通过限制其他国家发展来实现自己的发展,行不通。解决中美贸易关系中存在的问题,只能通过对话磋商,实现合作共赢。磋商必须是平等的,合理解决彼此关切,不是单方面解决美方关切,不是美国单赢,而要双赢,而且要给世界各国带来利益,实现世界共赢。


问:大使先生说得有道理。中美经贸磋商中,中方的红线在哪里?有什么条款是中方完全不能接受的?


答:中美经贸磋商必须基于平等和相互尊重,实现中美双赢并给世界带来好处。中国决不会接受损害自身主权等核心利益和国家尊严的任何贸易条款。


问:中美贸易战已经持续一段时间了,或许还会继续下去。在此背景下,中欧贸易关系对中国意味着什么?欧洲是否会对中国更重要?


答:欧盟是世界重要一极,也是世界最大经济体。欧盟对中国过去重要,现在重要,将来更重要。不管中美经贸磋商如何,中方将坚定不移地支持欧盟团结强大,坚定不移地致力于同欧盟及其成员国发展互利双赢的合作。就贸易而言,我们欢迎包括瑞典在内的欧洲国家多向中国出口高质量产品,满足中国经济社会发展需要,满足中国人民不断提高生活水平的需求。为扩大从世界各国进口,在习近平主席倡议下,去年11月中国在上海成功举办世界上首个国际进口博览会。今年11月我们将举办第二届国际进口博览会,欢迎世界各国有志于开拓中国市场的企业家参加这个博览会,带来自己最好的产品,向中国民众推介,向中国市场推销。从2017年起,瑞典对华贸易实现顺差。我们欢迎瑞方扩大对华贸易顺差。瑞典对华贸易顺差再大,我们也不会像美国那样对瑞典发起贸易战。


问:欧盟委员会今年3月发布对华战略文件称,中国不再是发展中国家,已成为欧盟系统性竞争对手。中国人权状况恶化,在新疆等地存在侵犯人权情况,监禁包括瑞典公民在内的外国公民。中国政府补贴本国企业,外国企业在华遭到不公正对待。欧盟上述文件的描述同美国的对华态度很接近。


答:中国仍是世界最大的发展中国家。中国人均GDP还不到1万美元,不到瑞典人均GDP的五分之一。中国经济发展还不平衡,东南沿海地区相对发达,广大中西部地区发展相对滞后。在航天、人工智能和5G等领域,中国已经赶上甚至领先世界其他国家,但在制造业、农业等行业和领域,我们同发达国家相比还有不小的差距。外界用西方发达国家的指标、标准衡量中国发达地区,认为中国不再是发展中国家,这是不公正的。关于人权问题,建议外界多关注中国近14亿人的生存权、发展权和其他各项权利,而不是关注一两个人的所谓“人权”。


问:中国区别对待本国和西方国家企业的做法公正吗?西方国家政府是否也可以像中国政府那样,区别对待本国企业和中国企业并限制中国企业发展?华为就是讨论的焦点。不少欧洲国家政府都不允许本国公司使用华为的5G技术。外界对中国投资的看法也与几年前不同了。


答:中国经济的开放程度是与中国经济的发展程度和成熟度相匹配的。我建议瑞典朋友关注习近平主席日前在二十国集团领导人大阪峰会上发表的重要讲话和李克强总理日前在夏季达沃斯论坛上发表的致辞。中方根据自身经济的成熟度,出台了一系列新的对外开放举措,推动由商品和要素流动性开放向规则等制度型开放转变。中国的农业、采矿业、制造业、服务业也将对外开放。


问:中国对香港目前的情况有多担心?


答:中国香港公民享有充分的集会和游行等权利,但极少数极端分子暴力冲击香港立法会、破坏立法会设施,这在任何国家都不被允许。


Ambassador Gui Congyou Gives an Exclusive Interview to Dagens Industri Chief Editor Arvid Åhlund


On 3 July, Ambassador Gui Congyou gave an exclusive interview to Dagens Industri Chief Editor Åhlund during Almedalen Week in Gotland. The full text is as following:



Q: Since the beginning of the 2019 G20 Osaka Summit, the China-US trade war has seen a truce, and the US side said it would not impose new tariffs on Chinese exports. But at present, given that the conditions did not really change, why can we expect positive progress in the resumed China-US trade talks?


Ambassador Gui: First of all, China is firmly opposed to the trade war. The US unilaterally launched trade war against the world’s major economies, including China, which damages the interests of others and itself. Our position has always been that the door to negotiation is open and we are willing to continue consultations with the US. But if the US insists on fighting a trade war, we will fight to the end. On the eve of the G20 summit in Osaka, President Trump proposed to meet with President Xi Jinping during the summit. The two presidents reached an important agreement that the trade consultations should be resumed on the basis of equality and mutual respect, and the US will no longer impose new tariffs on Chinese exports.


Q: The Chinese official version is that the trade war was initiated unilaterally by President Trump. However, Trump said that China’s exports to the US are five times that of US exports to China, and the terms of trade between the two countries have long been unequal. Is this true? Is Trump right?


Ambassador Gui: The China-US economic and trade cooperation, in essence, is mutual beneficial and win-win, and is based on market. China-US economic and trade cooperation is mutually complementary. What American importers buy from China and what Chinese exporters sell to the US is entirely independent market behavior by the companies. The Chinese government cannot violate market principles by instructing Chinese companies to refuse to import products from US exporters, or instructing Chinese exporters not to sell goods to the United States. If President Trump believes that China has a surplus because the United States does not sell enough to China, then please create conditions for US companies to sell more to China.


Q: The China-US trade war took place in a broader backdrop. Before the trade war, the Trump administration already listed China as a strategic competitor, marking a major change in the US policy toward China. The US congress is more hawkish toward China, and the American business community is also on board. The United States even threatened to impose 25% tariff on all Chinese exports to the United States. China’s official media, China Daily, said in an article that the United States is not just after trade, but its real purpose is to contain China’s development in all its aspects. What do you think about this?


Ambassador Gui: When we look at international relations, a basic principle is that the cold war is over and that state-to-state relations should no longer be zero-sum games. China is committed to an open policy of win-win cooperation. The Chinese side is willing to develop friendly and cooperative relations with all countries in the world and better achieve common development through cooperation. China has a population of nearly 1.4 billion, accounting for one-fifth of the world’s total population. The world cannot achieve good development without the good development of China. We are firmly committed to peaceful development and do not regard any country as a strategic competitor. The fact that some people in the US define China as a strategic competitor is a manifestation of their Cold War mentality. Trying to achieve one’s own development by limiting the development of other countries will not work. The only way to solve the problems existing in China-US trade relations is to have dialogue and consultation to achieve win-win cooperation. The consultations must be equal-footed and reasonably address the concerns of both parties, instead of only addressing the concerns of the US. It should not only be a win for the United States, but win-win outcomes for both sides, and it needs to bring benefits to other countries of the world.


Q: What Mr. Ambassador said that makes sense. In the China-US trade consultations, where is China’s red line? What clauses are absolutely unacceptable to China?


Ambassador Gui: China-US trade consultations must be based on equality and mutual respect, achieve win-win outcomes for both China and the United States, and bring benefits to the rest of the world. China will never accept any terms that undermine its core interests and national dignity.


Q: The China-US trade war has been going on for some time and may continue. In this context, what does China-EU trade relationship mean to China? Will Europe be more important to China?


Ambassador Gui: The EU is an important pole in the world and the largest economy in the world. The EU has been important and will be more important to China. Regardless of the results of the China-US trade consultations, China will unswervingly support a stronger and more united EU, and unswervingly commit itself to developing mutually beneficial and win-win cooperation with the EU and its member states. As far as trade is concerned, we welcome European countries including Sweden to export more high-quality products to China, meet the need of China’s economic and social development, and meet the need of the Chinese people to improve their living standards. In order to expand imports from all over the world, under the initiative of President Xi Jinping, China successfully hosted the world’s first International Import Expo in Shanghai last November. In November this year, we will hold the 2nd China International Import Expo. We welcome entrepreneurs from all over the world who are interested in exploring the Chinese market to participate in this event, bring their best products, and present them to the Chinese consumers and market. Since 2017, Sweden has maintained a trade surplus with China. We welcome the Swedish side to expand its trade surplus with China. No matter how big Sweden’s trade surplus with China is, we will not fight a trade war with Sweden like the United States.



Q: The EU Commission issued a document on China in March this year, which said that China is no longer a developing country and has become a systemic rival. It said the human rights situation in China has deteriorated, and human rights violations have occurred in places such as Xinjiang, with foreign citizens including Swedish citizens imprisoned. It also said the Chinese Government subsidizes domestic enterprises, and foreign companies are treated unfairly in China. The description in the above-mentioned document in the EU is very similar to the United States’ attitude to China.


Ambassador Gui: China is still the largest developing country in the world. China’s per capita GDP is less than 10,000 US dollars, less than one-fifth of that of Sweden. China’s economic development is still uneven, with the coastal areas in its southeast relatively more developed, and the vast central and western regions less developed. In the fields of space technology, artificial intelligence and 5G, China has already caught up with other countries in the world, but in industries and fields such as manufacturing and agriculture, we are still significantly lagging behind developed countries. It is unfair to use the indicators and standards of Western developed countries to measure China’s developed regions and conclude that China is no longer a developing country. Regarding human rights issues, it is important to pay more attention to the rights to survival, development and other rights of nearly 1.4 billion people in China, instead of focusing on the so-called “human rights” of one or two individuals.


Q: Is it fair that China treats Chinese and Western companies differently? Can Western governments also treat their companies and Chinese companies differently and limit the development of Chinese companies like the Chinese government does? Huawei is the focus of discussion. Many European governments do not allow their companies to use Huawei’s 5G technology. The outside world’s view on Chinese investment is different from a few years ago.


Ambassador Gui: The degree of openness of the Chinese economy is commensurate with the degree of development and maturity of the Chinese economy. I suggest that Swedish friends pay attention to the important speech delivered by President Xi Jinping at the G20 Summit in Osaka and the important speech delivered by Premier Li Keqiang at the Summer Davos Forum. In accordance with the maturity of its own economy, the Chinese side has rolled out a series of new measures for opening up, moving from the opening-up based on the flow of goods and factors of production to opening-up based on rules and institutions. China’s agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and service industries will also be open to the world.


Ambassador Gui: Citizens in Hong Kong of China enjoy full rights to assembly and demonstration. But a small number of extremists violently stormed the Hong Kong Legislative Council and vandalized the facilities, which is not allowed in any country.