北欧时报现场播报和提问:2018年度诺贝尔经济学奖公布

2018-10-08 12:10:43 来源:北欧时报


北欧时报 斯德哥尔摩讯 记者何儒 刘冬阳)欧洲时间10月8日上午11:45分,瑞典皇家科学院秘书长Göran Hansson教授宣布:2018年诺贝尔经济学奖授予美国经济学家威廉·诺德豪斯(William D· Nordhaus)和保罗·罗默(Paul M·Romer),以表彰其将气候变化和技术创新纳入宏观经济分析所做的贡献(Integrating innovation and climate with economic growth)。/北欧时报 摄



瑞典皇家科学院在公布结果时说:“他们通过构建解释市场经济如何与自然和知识相互作用的模型,大大拓宽了经济分析的范围。”


威廉·诺德豪斯出生于新墨西哥州阿尔伯开克,任耶鲁大学史特林经济学教授,是全球研究气候变化经济学的顶级分析师之一。他在20世纪70年代发展了研究全球变暖的经济学方法,为应对气候变化提供了有效途径。

保罗·罗默是纽约大学斯特恩商学院经济学教授,曾任世界银行首席经济师,他在20世纪90年代的研究中构建了一个人们在经济活动中有意识地进行研究开发以促进技术进步的数理模型。


公布之前,工作人员紧紧抱住欲揭锅的官方信息/北欧时报


发布会开始/北欧时报


斯德哥尔摩经济学院教授Per Strömberg在主席台/北欧时报


Per Krusell教授解读今年的奖项/北欧时报


SVT记者首先提问/北欧时报


记者席/北欧时报


北欧时报特约记者、斯德哥尔摩经济学院学者刘冬阳在现场提问/北欧时报


北欧时报记者问:

您好,我是来自《北欧时报》的刘冬阳,今年的诺贝尔经济学奖都颁给了解决全球宏观经济问题的学者,那么我想问奖项如何与如今波动的全球经济联系起来呢?特别是与贸易保护主义和政治不确定性这方面。


Per Krusell教授:我认为今年的奖项与这些不太相关,这是个很大的话题,虽然确实很重要,但与今年的奖项并没有过多的交集。


北欧时报记者继续问:

那么您认为奖项可以改进新兴市场的市场效率吗?


Per Strömberg答:

奖项没有提到很多相关内容,但是一定程度讨论了知识增长和科技增长的重要性,虽然不是非常具体地讨论。显而易见,新兴市场从领先技术国家所经历的技术革命中获益匪浅,因为它可以享受创新者和大部分富裕国家贡献的技术。但我们在评选奖项时,这不是非常关注的主题。


我想补充一点,两个奖项都与全球经济问题息息相关,整个世界需要集合在一起来解决如何取得恰到好处的科技进步和解决全球的气候变化问题。我认为这里的相关信息是我们需要集合在一起来得到一个全球性的解决方案,并且我们需要使富裕国家意识到新兴市场在实施解决方案时遇到的问题,比如专利保护,或者气体排放等等。因此不同国家通过全球合作来解决这些重大问题是必须的。


Interview of the panel


Nordic Chinese Times:

Thank you. This is Dongyang from Nordic Chinese Times, we could see that the awards are given to the people who trying to tackle global macroeconomic issues, so I wonder that how the prize will relate to the fluctuating global economy, especially in terms of trade protectionism and political uncertainty?


Per KrusellI don’t, honestly don’t think there is a strong tie between the prize, they’re just too broad. They are important, but they don’t have much overlap with this year’s prize.


Then how do you think the prize will improve the efficiency in emerging markets?

Per StrömbergI don’t think it speaks to that very much, but what the prize talks about to some extent is the importance of knowledge growth and technology growth, but it’s not very specific. So obviously, emerging markets benefit enormously from the technology revolutions that the leading technology countries go through because it can ride on the way of technology that innovators and mostly the rich countries today contribute. So that’s sense, but it’s not the topic that we focus much on in this particular prize formulation.


If I could add to that, both of these prizes are really about global problems, that you know the whole world needs to get together to solve how to get the right amount of technological progress, how solve the global problem of climate change. And I guess there is a message that’s relevant here is that we need to get together to get the global solution, and to get global solution we also need to realize rich countries need to realize the problems that emerging markets have with implementing some these solutions. You know how, when comes to the patent protection, when comes to emissions and so on. So I guess the message is that it’s needed the countries to corporate globally to solve some these big questions.


专家解答北欧时报记者问/北欧时报


瑞典皇家科学院秘书长Göran Hansson教授接受记者专访/北欧时报


俄亥俄州利大学菲舍尔商学院金融系Ingrid Werner教授接受北欧时报记者专访/北欧时报


北欧时报首次汇同中国创新科技公司新译科技在现场做双语报道/北欧时报



美联社记者现场提问/北欧时报


附皇家科学院公布的官方信息:


Integrating innovation and climate with economic growth


William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer have designed methods for addressing some of our times most basic and pressing questions about how we create long-term sustained and sustainable economic growth.

At its heart, economics deals with the management of scarce resources. Nature dictates the main constraints on economic growth and our knowledge determines how well we deal with these constraints. This years Laureates William Nordhaus and Paul Romer have signifcantly broadened the scope of economic analysis by constructing models that explain how the market economy interacts with nature and knowledge.


Technological change – Romer demonstrates how knowledge can function as a driver of long-term economic growth.

When annual economic growth of a few per cent accumulates over decades, it transforms peoples lives. Previous macroeconomic research had emphasised technological innovation as the primary driver of economic growth, but had not modelled how economic decisions and market conditions determine the creation of new technologies. Paul Romer solved this problem by demonstrating how economic forces govern the willingness of frms to produce new ideas and innovations. Romers solution, which was published in 1990, laid the foundation of what is now called endogenous growth theory. The theory is both conceptual and practical, as it explains how ideas are different to other goods and require specifc conditions to thrive in a market. Romers theory has generated vast amounts of new research into the regulations and policies that encourage new ideas and long-term prosperity

Climate change – Nordhaus fndings deal with interactions between society and nature. Nordhaus decided to work on this topic in the 1970s, as scientists had become increasingly worried about the combustion of fossil fuel resulting in a warmer climate. In the mid-1990s, he became the frst person to create an integrated assessment model, i.e. a quantitative model that describes the global interplay between the economy and the climate. His model integrates theories and empirical results from physics, chemistry and economics. Nordhaus model is now widely spread and is used to simulate how the economy and the climate co-evolve. It is used to examine the consequences of climate policy interventions, for example carbon taxes.


The contributions of Paul Romer and William


Nordhaus are methodological, providing us with fundamental insights into the causes and consequences of technological innovation and climate change. This years Laureates do not deliver conclusive answers, but their fndings have brought us considerably closer to answering the question of how we can achieve sustained and sustainable global economic growth.


威廉D.诺德豪斯 耶鲁大学,纽黑文,美国


将气候变化纳入长期宏观经济分析

纽约大学斯特恩商学院,纽约,美国

将技术创新融入长期宏观经济分析


将创新与气候与经济增长相结合

威廉·D·诺德豪斯(William D. Nordhaus)和保罗·M罗默(Paul M. Romer)设计了一些方法来解决我们当前关于如何创造长期持续和可持续经济增长的最基本和最紧迫的问题。

经济学的核心是处理稀缺资源。自然决定了经济增长的主要制约因素,而我们的知识决定了我们应对这些制约因素的程度。今年的获奖者William NordhausPaul Romer通过构建解释市场经济如何与自然和知识相互作用的模型,显着扩大了经济分析的范围。


技术变革 - 罗默展示了知识如何成为推动长期经济增长的动力。


当几个百分点的年经济增长累积数十年时,它改变了人们的生活。以前的宏观经济研究强调技术创新是经济增长的主要驱动力,但没有模拟经济决策和市场条件如何决定新技术的创造。保罗罗默通过证明经济力量如何管理公司创造新思想和创新的意愿来解决这个问题。罗默的解决方案于1990年出版,奠定了现在所谓的内生增长理论的基础。该理论既概念又实用,因为它解释了创意如何与其他商品不同,并要求特定条件在市场中茁壮成长。罗默的理论已经产生了大量关于鼓励新思想和长期繁荣的法规和政策的新研究。

气候变化 - 诺德豪斯的衰弱涉及社会与自然之间的相互作用。诺德豪斯决定在20世纪70年代研究这一主题,因为科学家越来越担心化石燃料的燃烧导致气候变暖。在20世纪90年代中期,他成为创建综合评估模型的第一人,即描述经济与气候之间全球相互作用的定量模型。他的模型整合了物理学,化学和经济学的理论和实证结果。 Nordhaus的模型现已广泛传播,用于模拟经济和气候如何共同发展。它用于检查气候政策干预的后果,例如碳税。


Paul RomerWilliam的贡献

诺德豪斯是方法论的,为我们提供了对技术创新和气候变化的原因和后果的基本见解。今年的获奖者没有提供确凿的答案,但他们的提议使我们更接近于回答我们如何实现持续和可持续的全球经济增长的问题。